Posted by on Sep 29, 2013 in All Posts, Construction Materials, Modern Construction | 0 comments

Fiberglass is an immensely versatile material which combines its light weight with an inherent strength to provide a weather resistant finish, with a variety of surface textures.

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Modular Construction

Posted by on Aug 15, 2013 in All Posts, Construction Materials, Modern Construction | 0 comments

Commercial Modular Buildings are code-compliant, non-residential structures 60% to 90% completed offsite in a factory-controlled environment then transported or shipped to a final destination where the modules are then placed on a concrete foundation to form a finished building. The word “modular” does not describe a building type or style, it simply describes a means of construction. The commercial modular construction industry comprises two distinct divisions: Permanent Modular Construction (PMC) – modular units built offsite and assembled onsite to create a permanent facility and not intended to be relocated. They are comparable to buildings built strictly onsite in terms of quality, life span, and materials used for construction. Relocatable Buildings – modular units built offsite and assembled onsite that can be partially or completely reused and relocated at future building sites. Benefits Accelerated Construction Process: A primary benefit of modular construction is its fast delivery. Due to the simultaneous process of creating modules in a factory at the same time site work is occurring, modular buildings can be constructed in up to half the time as buildings built completely onsite. This allows the buildings to be occupied sooner and allows owners to see a faster return on investment. In order to save the most time and money and maximize the efficiency of the modular construction process, it is important to implement the modular construction at the beginning of the design-build process. Quality Built: Modular buildings are built with all the same materials and to the same building codes and architectural specifications as onsite construction, just completed in an offsite, quality controlled environment. Modular buildings are also built to be able to withstand travel and installation requirements, creating a building that can be more durable than structures built onsite. Sustainable: Less Material Waste – Modular construction makes it possible to optimize construction materials purchases and usage while minimizing onsite waste and offering a higher quality product to the buyer. According to the UK group WRAP, up to a 90% reduction in materials can be achieved through the use of modular construction. Materials minimized include: wood pallets, shrink wrap, cardboard, plasterboard, timber, concrete, bricks, and cement. Less Site Disturbance – The modular structure is constructed off-site simultaneous to foundation and other site work, thereby reducing the time and impact on the surrounding site environment, as well as reducing the number of vehicles and equipment needed at the site. Greater Flexibility and Reuse- When the needs change, modular buildings can be disassembled and the modules relocated or refurbished for their next use reducing the demand for raw materials and minimizing the amount of energy expended to create a building to meet the new need. In some cases, the entire building can be recycled. Improved Air Quality – Many of the indoor air quality issues identified in new construction result from high moisture levels in the framing materials. Construction occurs primarily indoors away from harsh weather conditions preventing damage to building materials and eliminating the potential for high levels of moisture being trapped in the new construction. Modular buildings can also contribute to LEED requirements in any category site-built construction can, and can even provide an advantage in the areas of Sustainable Sites, Energy and Atmosphere, Materials and Resources, and Indoor Environmental Quality.[2] Modular construction can also provide an advantage in similar categories in the International Green Construction...

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Reinforced Concrete

Posted by on Jul 22, 2013 in All Posts, Construction Materials, Modern Construction | 0 comments

Reinforced concrete is a composite material in which concrete’s relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength and/or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before it sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed (in compression), so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. For a strong, ductile and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties at least: High relative strength High toleration of tensile strain Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, moisture, and similar factors Thermal compatibility, not causing unacceptable stresses in response to changing temperatures. Durability in the concrete environment, irrespective of corrosion or sustained stress for example. Use in construction François Coignet was a French industrialist of the nineteenth century, a pioneer in the development of structural prefabricated and reinforced concrete.[1] Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete as a technique for constructing building structures.[2] In 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four story house at 72 rue Charles Michels in the suburbs of Paris. Many different types of structures and components of structures can be built using reinforced concrete including slabs, walls, beams, columns, foundations, frames and more. Reinforced concrete can be classified as precast or cast-in-place concrete. Designing and implementing the most efficient floor system is key to creating optimal building structures. Small changes in the design of a floor system can have significant impact on material costs, construction schedule, ultimate strength, operating costs, occupancy levels and end use of a building. Without reinforcement, constructing modern structures with the concrete material would not be possible. Behavior of reinforced concrete Materials: Concrete is a mixture of coarse (stone or brick chips) and fine (generally sand or crushed stone) aggregates with a binder material (usually Portland cement). When mixed with a small amount of water, the cement hydrates to form microscopic opaque crystal lattices encapsulating and locking the aggregate into a rigid structure. Typical concrete mixes have high resistance to compressive stresses (about 4,000 psi (28 MPa)); however, any appreciable tension (e.g., due to bending) will break the microscopic rigid lattice, resulting in cracking and separation of the concrete. For this reason, typical non-reinforced concrete must be well supported to prevent the development of tension. If a material with high strength in tension, such as steel, is placed in concrete, then the composite material, reinforced concrete, resists not only compression but also bending and other direct tensile actions. A reinforced concrete section where the concrete resists the compression and steel resists the tension can be made into almost any shape and size for the construction industry. Key characteristics: Three physical characteristics give reinforced concrete its special properties: The coefficient of thermal expansion of concrete is similar to that of steel, eliminating large internal stresses due to differences in...

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